Anatomy Anatomical features of the mantle Anatomy of the middle mantle layer

anatomy mantle middle mantle layer cell pigment location-colour

These types of pigmentation can occur in different combinations depending on the localisation of the pigment.

epimembranaceous The pigment lays on the hyphal surface in optical sections as short lines of different length; in surface view of the hyphae irregularly shaped patches can be seen (A).

membranaceous The pigment is located within the cell wall, therefore in optical sections the walls appear dark, in hyphal surface view the margins of the hyphae appear darker (B).

plasmatical The pigment is located within the cytoplasm, vacuoles – if present – can be distinguished as lighter coloured areas; in hyphal surface view the central part of the hypha appears somewhat darker (C).

vacuolar The pigment is located within roundish to elongated vacuoles; these vacuoles are different from the strongly light reflecting oil droplets (= guttules), consisting of homogeneous colourless material; vacuolarly stained hyphae in surface view are also a bit darker in the center than at the margins (D).

  1 colourless
  2 membranaceously yellowish
  3 membranaceously brownish
  4 membranaceously red
  5 membranaceously bluish
  6 membranaceously grey
  7 plasmatically bluish
  8 plasmatically brownish
  9 plasmatically greyish
  10 plasmatically yellowish
  11 plasmatically reddish
  12 vacuolarly yellowish
  13 vacuolarly brownish
  14 epimembranaceously brownish
  15 epimembranaceously yellowish
  16 yellowish

– Character listing –