Anatomy Anatomy of the emanating elements in general Anatomy of emanating hyphae

anatomy emanating elements emanating hyphae cell pigment location-colour

These types of pigmentation can occur in different combinations depending on the localisation of the pigment.

epimembranaceous The pigment lays on the hyphal surface in optical sections as short lines of different length; in surface view of the hyphae irregularly shaped patches can be seen (A).

membranaceous The pigment is located within the cell wall, therefore in optical sections the walls appear dark, in hyphal surface view the margins of the hyphae appear darker (B).

plasmatical The pigment is located within the cytoplasm, vacuoles – if present – can be distinguished as lighter coloured areas; in hyphal surface view the central part of the hypha appears somewhat darker (C).

vacuolar The pigment is located within roundish to elongated vacuoles; these vacuoles are different from the strongly light reflecting oil droplets (= guttules), consisting of homogeneous colourless material; vacuolarly stained hyphae in surface view are also a bit darker in the center than at the margins (D).

  1 absent
  2 membranaceously blackish
  3 membranaceously bluish
  4 membranaceously brownish
  5 membranaceously greenish
  6 membranaceously red
  7 membranaceously yellowish
  8 plasmatically yellowish
  9 plasmatically brownish
  10 plasmatically greenish
  11 vacuolarly yellowish
  12 vacuolarly brownish
  13 vacuolarly red
  14 vacuolarly reddish
  15 vacuolarly lilac, pink
  16 epimembranaceously brownish
  17 epimembranaceously reddish
  18 epimembranaceously yellowish
  19 greenish
  20 grey, black
  21 vinaceous
  22 yellowish

– Character listing –