Anatomy Anatomy of the emanating elements in general

anatomy emanating elements backwards-oriented ramifications presence

1 absent
2 present

This feature can only be observed, if several clamps in row can be seen in lateral view. In hyphae with clamps, usually the obtuse angle hints towards the distal end of a hypha, whereas the overobtuse angle looks to the proximal part. Therefore, the direction of growth can easily be discerned, when the direction of the obtuse clamp angle is observed (A). In clampless hyphae, a side-branch oriented backwards can only be detected, if a larger system of ramifications is existing; there the angle, included between the side-branches and the main hypha, indicates the main direction of growth. In that case, a distinction between a branch growing backwards and a system originating from an anastomosis is very difficult, sometimes even impossible.

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